Increased state control of the use of violence, and the disregard of human rights in Africa as principal causes for the immigration of Africans

Abstract


Callixte Kavuro* and Ernest Muchu Toh

African states have suffered immense victimization as a result of colonialism before independence and from neo colonialism after independence. During colonization, there were constant challenges of resistance groups resisting the imposed colonial systems of governments carried over to Africa by the colonizers. Upon independence, new challenges arose such as managing newly formed independent governments pre designed to be permanently dependent on imperialists who failed to train the leaders of the respective states and contestations from unwanted groups such as civil wars, and insurgencies. However, the adoption and consequently, poor economic development and leadership in African states degenerated into most states falling victim to conflicts of management relative implementation by many African states of democracy and human rights practices in the nineties had in a way reduced the desire for politico economic incitement and violence aimed at destabilizing the state. In addition, the birth of the African Union in 2004, instituted the call for a peaceful Africa that cannot be ignored. Despite the relative trend of serenity African states seemed to have been enjoying, for a considerable time, peace, and security, most notably in the last decade of the twentieth century. There has also been an increased shift in violent threats on the state control of violence that has caused great loss of lives and economic retardation. Again, concerted efforts by external forces such as the NATO on Libya in 2011, Muslim brotherhoods in Egypt, the Al-Shabaab in Kenya, and Somalia, rebels in the Central African Republic and the Boko Haram in Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria, and the Southern Cameroon (Ambazonia) war for independence explain there is increase disregard in the sovereignty of those state, a reason which allows for such threats. This article looks at the reasons for such disregard of sovereignty, the effects on the public administration, which culminate into wanton human rights abuses, and mass migration within and out of the home country and African continent. It concludes by providing possible recommendations for these problems.

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