A review on epidemiology, diagnosis, management and treatment of diabetes mellitus

Abstract


Kamal Singh Bani*, Khushboo Bhardwaj, Stuti Tripathi

Diabetes Mellitus (DM), a condition caused by metabolic abnormalities, is the most common worldwide. Sometimes known as diabetes, in which a person's blood sugar levels are abnormally high, either because the body does not make enough insulin or because the insulin that is produced does not reach the cells. Polyuria (frequent urine), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia are all common indicators of elevated blood sugar (increased hunger). Type 1 diabetes, also known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM), is characterized by the body's inability to manufacture insulin, necessitating the use of insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump. It's also known as "juvenile diabetes." Insulin resistance, also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is a disease in which cells fail to utilize insulin properly, either with or without an absolute insulin deficit. This condition was originally known as "adult-onset diabetes." The third major kind is gestational diabetes, which happens when women who have never had diabetes have a high blood glucose level during pregnancy. It may occur before the onset of type 2 diabetes. Insulin and oral hypoglycemic medications are currently available medicines for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. These medications work by raising insulin production from the pancreas or decreasing plasma glucose levels by enhancing glucose absorption and decreasing gluconeogenesis. These present medications, on the other hand, do not restore normal glucose homeostasis for a longer period of time and are not without side effects such as hypoglycemia, kidney illness, GIT difficulties, hepatotoxicity, heart risk concerns, insulinoma, and they must be used for the rest of one's life. Various herbal medications have also been shown to be successful in the treatment of diabetes due to their beneficial ingredients. As a result, the current analysis attempts to concentrate on the physiological elements of diabetes, its consequences, management goals, and synthetic and herbal diabetes treatment.

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