Chemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum (clove)


G. A. Ayoola*, F. M. Lawore, T. Adelowotan , I. E. Aibinu , E. Adenipekun , H. A. B. Coker and T. O. Odugbemi

Steam distillation of the dry flower buds of Syzigium aromaticum (clove) yielded 7% (w/w) of the pure light yellow oil. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the oil revealed that the components were eugenol, caryophyllene, eugenol acetate and alpha-humelene, with eugenol being the main component. The antimicrobial sensitivity of the volatile oil against some Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella paratyphi, Citrobacter spp. and Enterobacter cloacae), a Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923), and a fungus (Candida albicans) showed a broad spectrum of activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for each organism as 2.4, 1.6, 0.27, 0.016, 0.23, 1.63, 0.73 and 0.067 mg/ml for S. aureus ATTC 25923, E. cloacae, S. paratyphi, K. pneumoniae, E. coli ATTC 35218, E. coli,  Citrobacter spp. and C. albicans, respectively. Antioxidant screening of clove oil with 2,2-diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) was positive, indicating the presence of free radical scavenging molecules which can be attributed to the presence of eugenol, a phenolic compound. 

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