Gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted disease caused by the gram-negative diplococcus Neisseria gonorrhoeae, continues to be a major global health problem despite efforts to eradicate it. Neisseria gonorrhoeae is the second most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease in the world. This pathogen has developed resistance to all presently licensed drugs, and multidrug-resistant strains have been detected globally. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends a combined therapy of ceftriaxone and azithromycin. However, when resistance to azithromycin and ceftriaxone develops, treatment failure has been documented. The only effective method to limit the spread of gonorrhoeae is protective vaccination. Previous studies investigated the immunogenicity of novel vaccine formulations based on inactivated whole-cell gonococcal microparticles loaded into soluble microneedles for transdermal delivery. Since spherical micro- and nanoparticles are biological mimics of gonorrhoeae, they are invaders of the immune system, but cannot weaken adaptive immunity. New drugs for the treatment of gonorrhoeae are important, but historical trends in resistance mean that vaccine studies must be included in all long-term plans. Proteomics and in silico methods for the detection of vaccination targets can form the basis for future success.
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