Genetical modifications: Techniques and applications


Mo Yan*

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) (i.e. plants, animals or microorganisms) can be defined as organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered. The alteration of genetic material can be naturally or artificially done. Foods which are produced from or using GM organisms are referred as GM foods. Agricultural plants are one of the most significant examples of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Resistance against insects is achieved by inculcating gene which produces insecticidal nature into the plant for toxin production from the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacterium. This toxin is used as an insecticide in agriculture and is safe for human consumption. GM crops that inherently produce this toxin, when required but in some specific situations it shows the insecticidal characteristics, Virus resistance makes plants less susceptible to diseases caused by such viruses, which results high crop yield production.

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