Marco A Leonti
The stem upholds the plant, holding up the plant's leaves, flowers, and fruits. Inside the stem, bundles of vascular tissue comprising of xylem and phloem transport water, nutrients, food, and different chemicals substances between different plant organs. The xylem transports water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the stem and leaves. The phloem transports dissolved sugars and organic compounds from the leaves on to the stem and roots. Cambium is found between xylem and phloem. The stem of all plants is green because of the presence of hypodermal chlorenchyma in its cortex. Yet, when the stem axis, particularly the dicot stem axis, stops to elongate and goes through secondary growth development its green colour vanishes and becomes pale or deep brown in colour.
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