Soils which contain undeniable degrees of specific clays with high swelling properties, for example, smectites, are frequently rich. For instance, the smectite-rich paddy soils of Thailand's Central Plains are among the most useful on the planet. Notwithstanding, the abuse of mineral nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides in watered concentrated rice creation has jeopardized these clays, driving ranchers to carry out coordinated practices dependent on Cost Reduction Operating Principles (CROP). Numerous farmers in tropical regions, be that as it may, battle to hold organic matter and clay in the soils they work. As of late, for instance, usefulness has declined and soil erosion has expanded in the low-clay soils of northern Thailand, following the relinquishment of shifting cultivation for a more perpetual land use.
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