Short Communication - (2022) Volume 12, Issue 2
Received: 02-May-2022, Manuscript No. IJMSA-22-52587; Editor assigned: 05-May-2022, Pre QC No. IJMSA-22-52587 (PQ); Reviewed: 20-May-2022, QC No. IJMSA-22-52587; Revised: 27-May-2022, Manuscript No. IJMSA-22-52587 (R); Published: 03-Jun-2022
After two years of pandemic, the COVID-19 constitutes today a serious problem for the world public health. The SARS-CoV-2 has manifested multiple mutations, so far, the OMS has classified of preoccupants five of its variants, that is, alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron, assisting to its impact in the transmission, the graveness of the illness or its capacity to avoid the immunity protection. At the same time that the varying omicron extends quickly all over the world, it is of foreseeing that the SARS-CoV-2 continues evolving, for what is unlikely that omicron is the last preoccupant varying (WHO, 2022).
The high transferability of this new variant has put in check to the systems of health in the world, when at the end of the year 2021, looking a decrease of the incidence after several countries were able to vaccinate an important number of populations. Among those countries Cuba has vaccinated to almost all her population starting from the 2 years of age, in these moments is in the phase of application of dose of reinforcement of the available vaccines: Soberana® Plus and Abdala 50 μg, with demonstrated effectiveness (Puig Meneses, 2021; Cubadebate, 2021).
In the article “Clinical and epidemiological characterization of suspicious and positive patients with COVID-19 in Port Padre”, observational, descriptive and traverse study, 565 patients were included, assisted in the municipality of Puerto Padre, Las Tunas, Cuba, from February until May of the 2020, in that period of study the population was not vaccinated and be they applied the first protocols for the prevention and control of this new illness in the territory (Pena García, et al. 2020).
The main results obtained through the epidemic surveys were: In the confirmed patients, the most frequent age group was 15 to 29 with 3 cases (42.9%), followed by those of 30 at 44 with 2 cases (28.6%) and a mean age of 31 years. The health area with a higher risk of incidence was that of Delicias with a rate of 13.91 every 100 000 inhabitants (3 affected). The cases were: imported and introduced (1 case each for 14.3%) and autochthonous (5 for 71.4%). The most frequent signs and symptoms in cases with positive RT-PCR were fever (28.6%), nasal obstruction, cough and rhinorrhea (14.3% each). The comorbidities that prevailed were hypertension (28.6%), nicotine addiction (28.6%) and bronchial asthma (14.3%). COVID-19 affected young people with prevalence in the asymptomatic clinical form.
After that period according to statistical reports of the Municipal Center of Hygiene and Epidemiology of Puerto Padre, the COVID-19 affected to patient in its majority bigger than 50 years, with several comorbidities, the incidence diminished to beginnings of the 2021 and an increment sustained with maximum picks began between august and september (CMHEM-DMS, 2021).
The emergency vaccination was approved starting from March of the 2021; the one that began with the personnel of health and exposed workers of other sectors, in July began with the vaccination to the rest of the population.
In August of the 2021 it is detected in the country the circulation of the varying Delta and at the end of December the omicron that favored the transmission and the increase of positive cases again in the territory (Noda Alonso, 2021; Cubadebate, 2021). At the present time the illness is presented with light symptoms, in its majority with breathing symptoms, of the superior tract, rhinorrhea and nasal secretion, sore throat, among other, although some cases can develop serious forms.
In these moments they are more affected not vaccinated people, or people of high risk: children, old men, patient with comorbidities, and on which the Cuban system of health maintains a strict surveillance and actions of prevention and control, without neglecting to the rest of the population. As well as it increases the surveillance and the international sanitary control to avoid the entrance to the country of sick people and it maintains the measures adopted previously (obligatory used of mask, frequent laundry and disinfection of the hands, social distancing, to avoid people’s masses, etc.), as well as it starts the reinforcement vaccination with a fourth dose from the available vaccines in an universal and gratuitous way to the whole population.
The development of new sanitary technologies, as the vaccines developed in the world and in Cuba they have favored the control of this illness, as well as the rest of the measures of prevention and control (surveillance, promotion and education for the health, diagnostic precocious, treatment and rehabilitation).
It is for it that is recommended to continue joining efforts: government, of nets and social organizations, institutions of health, scientific, health´s workers and to the whole population for the control of this illness (PAHO, 2022).
The pandemic, and their devastating consequences in the environments of the economy and the health, it has had a deep impact in the life and the means of people’s subsistence, and it has caused serious dysfunctions in the countries, the society, the economy and the development. This has happened at the same time of the unavoidable challenges in the road toward an equal and sustainable development, and toward the achievement of the Objectives of Sustainable Development fixed for the 2030 and the objectives of the Calendar of Sustainable Health for the America 2018-2030.
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