Theoretical foundations of sociocultural anthropology

Perspective - (2022) Volume 12, Issue 3

Seyed Hasan*
*Correspondence: Seyed Hasan, Department of Anthropology, Mashhad University, Mashhad, Iran, Email:
Department of Anthropology, Mashhad University, Mashhad, Iran

Received: 02-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IJMSA-21-71488; Editor assigned: 05-Sep-2022, Pre QC No. IJMSA-21-71488 (PQ); Reviewed: 19-Sep-2022, QC No. IJMSA-21-71488; Revised: 26-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. IJMSA-21-71488 (R); Published: 05-Oct-2022

About the Study

The term "sociocultural anthropology" combines the terms "social anthropology" and "cultural anthropology." It belongs to one of anthropology's four primary subfields. Sociocultural anthropologists concentrate on societal and cultural research while frequently being intrigued by universalism and cultural variety. Sociocultural anthropologists are aware of a movement in the field's focus away from a traditional tribal perspective and toward a more modern understanding. Methodologies have changed in accordance with this, and the discipline is still evolving along with society. The impact of the state on people and their interactions has changed as a result of globalisation.

The criterion Cultural anthropology is typically used to describe anthropological works that take a comprehensive approach, are focused on how culture influences personal experience, or seek to present a complete picture of a people's knowledge, practises, and institutions. Cultural anthropology is the study of how people interpret their surroundings via the application of collective knowledge, morals, laws, aesthetics, and conventions. The term "social anthropology" is used to describe ethnographic works that make an effort to isolate a specific system of social relations, such as those that make up domestic life, the economy, law, politics, or religion, give analytical priority to the organisational foundations of social life, and pay attention to cultural phenomena as a sort of side issue to the core questions of social scientific inquiry.

The issue of difference and resemblance within and between human communities is one that sociocultural anthropology, which is generally considered to include linguistic anthropology, is interested in. Public discussions on multiculturalism and the growing use of the concept of culture outside of the academic setting and among anthropologically studied populations have brought forth new difficulties.


To ethnographically examine communities and cultures, sociocultural anthropology separates into a larger national level and a minority of subcultural groupings. The officially organised institutions, such as those of the government and legal systems, the economic system, the religious organisation, the educational system, and the law enforcement and military organisations, all radiate the national culture. Although confined to upper class relevance, national achievements have an impact on social integration. Subcultural segments are sets of people who act in accordance with the dominant culture. Through a vertical lens of national development-based difference and a horizontal lens of class and occupational divisions organised by societal hierarchy, subcultural groups are observed.

Human migration

Anthropologists study human migration, which has had a big and small impact on culture and society. The movement of people "away from their place of ordinary habitation, either over an international border or inside a state" is referred to as human migration. The mobility of people continues to be influenced by a variety of social, political, economic, demographic, cultural, and geographic factors.


The study of society and culture is connected to the field of linguistics. Both disciplines have their philosophical roots in the academia of the 19th century, when archaeologists and early folklorists searched for cultural foundations in folktales and shared memory. These early anthropologists narrowed their attention to the role that structural codes played in defining societies. Early linguistic studies were driven by the comparison of societies. In the 20th century, linguistic anthropology and formal linguistics diverged, with a stronger emphasis on the cultural and behavioural lens of language. It is still necessary to investigate formal linguistics from a cognitive perspective. Language's role in people's social and cultural lives in various societies is examined by linguistic anthropology. In cultures, speech is used as a mechanism to describe the progression of specific events and how role relationships affect them.


Sociocultural integration examines how the spheres interact and contrasts them with other civilizations and cultures. Theoretical generalisations for social research and reflection on human experiences are shared by sociology and sociocultural anthropology, which are closely related disciplines. The two were split apart in the 20th century as a result of variations in research areas, geographic concentrations, and methodological emphasis. In contrast to sociology, which examines society as a whole, sociocultural anthropology frequently centres its research on larger political, ethical, and economic issues within small-scale societies. Sociologically trained ethnographers are more concerned with actual facts than they are with anthropological philosophy. The two have recently come back together as a result of the globalisation of subject concepts and approaches.

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