Viruses: evolution and impact on life

Perspective - (2021) Volume 15, Issue 2

Bala nayir*
*Correspondence: Bala nayir, Department of microbiology, University of Carbondale, Carbondale, USA, Email:
Department of microbiology, University of Carbondale, Carbondale, USA

Received: 06-Sep-2021 Published: 29-Sep-2021


The study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases, including their distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution, and clinical aspects, is referred to as virology.

Virus infections are the most common cause of acute sickness that does not require hospitalisation in affluent countries, according to epidemiological studies. Viruses cause a high rate of mortality and lifelong disability in underdeveloped countries, particularly among new borns and children. Virus outbreaks, such as those caused by HIV, the Ebola virus, and the Hantavirus, occur on a regular basis. Virus infections offer a higher and less controlled hazard to human health since that antibiotics have effectively controlled most bacterial infections. According to some evidence, the currently vast range of recognised viral diseases may eventually be expanded to include other significant human illnesses such juvenile diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, different neurologic and immunologic disorders, and several cancers.

Viruses can infect many kinds of life (bacteria, plants, protozoa, fungus, insects, fish, reptiles, birds, and mammals). Viruses, like other microbes, may have aided in the evolution of animal species. Natural selection of rabbits resistant to the virulent Myxoma virus through numerous epidemics purposefully created to limit the rabbit population in Australia is one recorded case. Indirect evidence implies that the smallpox virus in humans played a similar selection role. Another proposed, though unproven, way for viruses to influence evolution is by delivering viral genetic material into animal cells through mechanisms similar to those that drive bacteriophage gene transfer. Avirulent retrovirus genes, for example, are incorporated into the genomes of chickens or mice, resulting in resistance to reinfection by related, virulent retroviruses. Human retroviruses may have a similar link, as human leukemia-causing retroviruses have been discovered.

Viruses are microscopic subcellular agents that cannot replicate outside of their host cell. In the simplest viruses, the constructed virus has only one type of nucleic acid and a protective protein coat. The genetic information required to programme the host cell’s synthetic machinery for viral replication is contained in the nucleic acid. The protein coat has two purposes: first, it protects the nucleic acid from extracellular environmental insults such as nucleases, and second, it allows the virus to connect to the host cell membrane, which would resist a naked nucleic acid due to its negative charge. Virus replication is mostly dependent on host cell machinery for energy and synthesis requirements once the viral genome has infiltrated and infected the host cell.

Although some viruses can produce silent infection of cells, their proliferation usually results in cell damage or death; nonetheless, because viruses rely on host survival for their own survival, they tend to create mild infections in which the host’s mortality is more of an exception than a rule. HIV, Ebola virus, hantavirus, and rabies virus are notable exceptions.

Viruses are unique among microorganisms in that they are completely reliant on the host cell. Because a virus must grow within a host cell, any discussion of pathogenesis, epidemiology, host defences, or therapy must include the virus and its host. The virus’s bilateral interaction with its host creates unique pathogenic conditions. Rhinoviruses, for example, require a temperature of less than 34°C to thrive; this requirement limits their growth to the cool outer layer of the nasal mucosa, preventing spread to deeper cells with higher temperatures.

The virus’s intracellular location frequently protects it from some of the host’s defence mechanisms, but it also makes it vulnerable because of its reliance on the host cell’s synthetic machinery, which can be harmed by even minor physical and chemical changes caused by the viral infection (inflammation, fever, circulatory alterations, and interferon).

The parameters of the virus-host interaction have a big impact on epidemiologic properties. Some arthropod-borne viruses, for example, require a specific temperature range to multiply in insects; as a result, these viruses are only found in specific seasons and locations. The transmissibility of viruses in aerosols and food is determined by other environmental factors.

Virus infections are clearly one of the most challenging and demanding situations that a physician must deal with. Unfortunately, despite considerable progress over the last many decades, some of these issues still lack satisfactory answers. Many areas of medical virology are now well understood, while others are gradually becoming clearer, and many more remain unknown. It’s critical to understand the features of viruses and the associations they form with their hosts if you want to investigate and treat their pathogenic processes effectively.

Awards Nomination

Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language

Indexed In
  • Index Copernicus
  • Google Scholar
  • Sherpa Romeo
  • Open J Gate
  • Directory of Open Access Journals
  • CiteFactor
  • Electronic Journals Library
  • Directory of Research Journal Indexing (DRJI)
  • OCLC- WorldCat
  • Publons
  • PubMed
  • Rootindexing
  • Chemical Abstract Services (USA)
  • Academic Resource Index