Adama BS, Isah UV*, Yohanna Auta Iliya, Mohammed AZ, Patrick OS and Saba JJ
This study investigated the effect of Pharmaceutical effluent on the physico-chemical parameters, heavy Metals and macro-invertebrates distribution along a pharmaceutical wastewater impacted stream in Minna. All parameters were determined using Standard method. Collection of sample was done in 4 sites of the Stream in Maitumbi, Minna. The method of APHA, (Abboud, 2014) was employed for the physico-chemical parameters with the use of Multi-parameter meter (H19813) Grochek and Dissolved Oxygen Analyzer model Model JPB-607. The heavy metal determination was carryout using the procedure of (Kruis, 2005; APHA, 2014) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) model MY15110001. High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for determination of anti-bionics in the effluent from the four samples sites. Macro-invertebrates samples were collected and analyzed using the procedures of APHA, (2014). Statistical analysis of data was done at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05). Results showed that pH (7.6 ± .28-8.94 ± .61), Electrical Conductivity (463.6 ± 115.59-1710.6 ± 682.32 μs/cm), Temperature (26.4 ± .55 -33.46 ± 1.26°c), TDS (223.4 ± 55) (1433 ± 170.79 mg/l). Dissolved Oxygen.(3.44 ± .534.64 ± .14 mg/l), Alkalinity (118 ± 19.54-1238 ± 95.7 mg/l), Calcium (28.592 ± 5.76- 44.66 ± 7.22 mg/l), carbon dioxide (6.084 ± 1.1819.35 ± 4.56 mg/l) Total Hardness (71.4 ± 6.5-153 ± 29.35) was within the acceptable limits set by Nigeria industrial Standard (NIS) and (WHO). Majority of other variables tested have values that are beyond the standard values of WHO, FEPA and USEPA with Conductivity and TDS having outrageous results. Similarly, the results of heavy metals analysis showed Lead to be absent in the effluents, but, indicates that Cadmium (0.00 ± 00-0.35 ± .31 mg/l), Copper (0.25 ± 0.12-29 ± 0.49 mg/l), Manganese (0.14 ± 0.05-25 ± 60 mg/l) was detected at levels above the acceptable limit set by national and international Standard organizations. The results of Macro-invertebrates shows a total of 148 macro-invertebrate taxa, representing 3 orders in 6 families recorded during the 6-month study. Of the major fauna groups, diptera contributed the highest percentage 70.95% of individual abundance which was significantly different (P < 0.05) among stations. Pollution tolerant (Chironomus) species at sites were better represented at station 2, 3and 4. The results of anti-biotic analyzed are; Ciprofloxacin (concentration 0.049 μ/cm, 0.099 μ/cm, 0.203 μ/ cm) and 0.188 μ/cm (Control); Amoxicillin (0.571 μ/cm; 0.3 μ/cm; 0.076 μ/cm; and 0.045 μ/cm (Control) Ampicillin (0.296 μ/cm,0.12 μ/cm,0.597 μ/cm and 0.296 μ/cm(Control); Metronidazole (0.249 μ/cm, 0.125 μ/cm,0.063 μ/cm and 0.011 μ/cm(Control); Tetracycline (0.104 μ/cm, 0.099 μ/cm, 0.048 μ/cm, and 0.023 μ/cm (Control). They are at concentrations more than or equal to detection limits of selected methods. The presence of the drug signifies possible seepage of pharmaceutical effluents into groundwater. The presence of some Dipteran Species associated with low dissolved oxygen levels in the impacted site bears credence to the fact that the chemical components of the waste water were lethal to some aquatic forms. This calls for an abrupt use of modern treatments plants to reduce the level of toxicity that may results from discharge of the effluents which find their way into the water bodies around and pose threat to man and animals that depends on such water for survival. The use of bio-indicator organisms for restoration and remediation programme is highly recommended.
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