A brief note on eukaryotes and prokaryotes

Opinion Article - (2022) Volume 16, Issue 1

Ravi Raj Nanda*
*Correspondence: Ravi Raj Nanda, Department of Microbiology, Peshawar University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan, Email:
Department of Microbiology, Peshawar University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan

Received: 24-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. AJMR-22-55628; Editor assigned: 26-Feb-2022, Pre QC No. AJMR-22-55628 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-Mar-2022, QC No. AJMR-22-55628; Revised: 17-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. AJMR-22-55628 (R); Published: 24-Mar-2022


Microorganisms, also called microbes, are microscopic organisms. Microbiology is the study of microbes. Microorganisms include bacteria, fungi, archaea and protists. Viruses and prions are not included in the definition of microorganisms because they are non-living.

There is a lot of debate right now concerning how life is organised and classified, especially in the study of microorganisms. The primary division between prokaryotes and eukaryotes divides living beings into two groups.

Prokaryotic microorganisms

Prokaryotes are minuscule single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus, a membrane, and other specialised organelles. Bacteria and archaea are examples of prokaryotes. Prokaryote life appears to have begun about over 4 billion years ago, feeding on the early atmosphere’s carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, steam, nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia. Archaea and bacteria are the two types of prokaryotes. All internal water-soluble components, proteins, DNA, and metabolites are found in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes, rather than in discrete cellular compartments, in the cytoplasm contained by the cell membrane. Bacteria do have protein-based bacterial microcompartments, and prokaryotes have a considerably more basic cytoskeleton than eukaryotes. Apart from homologues of actin and tubulin, flagellin, the helically structured building-block of the flagellum, is one of the most important cytoskeletal proteins in bacteria, providing structural backdrops for chemotaxis, bacteria’s basic physiological response.

Despite billions of years of development or progress, prokaryotic life is a very primitive form of life. We murder billions of germs with antibiotics and detergents, oblivious to the fact that we are also destroying life-forms. This is a basic life-form that we kill and don’t give a damn about.

Of all living species, prokaryotes have the most diversified niche occupancies, metabolisms, and geographic dispersion. Prokaryotes can be free-living or have pathogenic or mutualistic relationships with their hosts, either intracellularly or extracellularly. They can have aerobic or anaerobic metabolisms, and many of them get their energy from hazardous chemicals. They can be found everywhere on the world, from the deepest depths of the ocean to the highest altitudes of the atmosphere, and everything in between, and have played a critical part in shaping and sustaining the planet’s biotic and abiotic traits.

Eukaryotic microorganisms

Eukaryotic organisms include protozoans, algae, fungi, plants, and mammals. Some eukaryotic cells are single-celled microorganisms that exist on their own, while others are found in multicellular organism.

They include algae, which are responsible for the majority of primary productivity in the oceans, protozoa, which are responsible for diseases like malaria and schistosomiasis, and fungi, which are responsible for carbon breakdown and recycling on a global scale.

An eukaryote’s cell has various membrane bound components that are scattered throughout the cytoplasm. They’re known as organelles. The nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, and plastid are the most common organelles found inside eukaryotic cells. The cytoskeleton, inclusions, and biomolecules are examples of cytoplasmic structures. These subcellular structures each have a specific purpose and are involved in a variety of metabolic actions that help to maintain homeostasis.

Mitosis and meiosis are two processes that eukaryotes use to divide their cells. Meiosis creates four daughter cells, whereas mitosis produces just two. After two successive divisions, meiosis cells will be haploid. The haploid cell will develop into a spermatozoon in males, but it may develop into an ovum in females. These two gametes might mate and produce a diploid zygote during fertilisation. In multicellular eukaryotes, the zygote divides into stem cells, which can then grow and differentiate into specialised cells that perform specific functions and assemble into tissues, organs, and biological systems. Myocytes, adipocytes, blood cells, neurons, hepatocytes, osteocytes, macrophages, and other cell types exist in humans.

Single-celled eukaryotes exist. A cell is a complete organism capable of completing all of the basic duties that different systems in a multicellular organism execute. Protists are examples of these single-celled organisms.

Organelles play particular roles in eukaryotes, such as energy production, photosynthesis, and membrane creation. The majority are membrane-bound structures that host specialised biochemical reactions. The nucleus is one of the most significant eukaryotic organelles since it houses a cell’s DNA. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are two more significant organelles that play important roles in energy conversion and are assumed to have evolved from primitive single-celled organism.

Genetic information is stored in genes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. ATP is their primary source of metabolic energy. They both have ribosomes, which help with protein synthesis.

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