Stance of tuberculosis occurrence and its risk factors

Perspective Article - (2023) Volume 10, Issue 1

Fischer Zarcero*
*Correspondence: Fischer Zarcero, Department of Virology, Hellenic Open University, Patras, Greece, Email:
Department of Virology, Hellenic Open University, Patras, Greece

Received: 20-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. AJIDD-23-92572 ; Editor assigned: 23-Feb-2023, Pre QC No. AJIDD-23-92572 (PQ); Reviewed: 09-Mar-2023, QC No. AJIDD-23-92572 ; Revised: 16-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. AJIDD-23-92572 (R); Published: 24-Mar-2023


The organism that causes tuberculosis is called Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TB). The TB bacteria can harm the kidney, spine, and brain in addition to the lungs, which is where they usually attack. Not everyone who receives TB bacteria becomes ill. Hence, two TB-related disorders include Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB disease. If TB disease is not properly treated, it might be fatal (Ahmed et al., 2011).

Even a person doesn't feel sick, TB germs can live in the body and create a latent illness. An infection with latent TB is what it is. The body is typically able to resist the bacteria and stop the infection from spreading when TB germs are inhaled and an infection ensues. They might become ill with TB if they do not receive therapy for latent TB infection (Pfyffer et al., 1998).

Many people who have latent TB infection never show any signs of TB sickness. For the remainder of their lives, these patients will carry dormant TB bacteria without becoming ill. Nonetheless, the bacteria can become active, develop, and cause TB disease in some people, especially those with compromised immune systems (Ward et al., 2010).

The TB bacteria become active if the immune system is unable to stop their growth. When the TB germs are active and growing inside the body, there is a chance of having TB disease. TB disease patients are unwell. They could be able to spread the bacteria to those they frequently engage (Grace et al., 2019).

Within a few weeks after receiving the infection, some people develop TB disease before their immune systems has a chance to kill the TB germs. If their immune system deteriorates for any other reason, others could develop an illness years from now.

TB and HIV co-infection

Tuberculosis is a serious health danger, especially for those with HIV. A person with untreated latent TB infection with HIV infection is significantly more likely to develop TB disease over the course of their lifetime than a person without HIV infection.

HIV infection increases a person's risk of contracting TB infection is one of the leading causes of death among people with HIV around the world. HIV infection is the biggest known risk factor for TB disease in those with latent TB infection. A patient's co-infection with TB and HIV qualifies as an AIDS-defining illness (M'imunya et al., 2012).

TB risk factor

One of two groups of peoples are often at a high risk of developing TB disease:

• Those who have just come into contact with TB bacteria

• Those with illnesses that impair immunity

• Those who have lately been exposed to the TB germs

• Those who have recently immigrated from nations with a high TB prevalence are included in this.

Populations with a high prevalence of TB transmission, such as injectable drug users, the homeless, and HIV-positive individuals (Wells et al., 2008).

Intimate contacts of a person with infectious TB disease. Those who work or reside in environments where there are a lot of people who are at risk for TB, such as in nursing homes, jails, homeless shelters, or homes for people with HIV (Sterling et al., 2020).

People with illnesses that weaken their immune systems. Infants and young children usually have compromised immune systems. Other people's immune systems can also be compromised, especially those with any of the following illnesses.

Addiction to drugs or alcohol, silica infection, diabetes mellitus, severe kidney disease, underweight, organ transplants, head and neck cancer, and medical operations like corticosteroids or organ transplants (Davies et al., 2007).


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