The presence of toxic heavy metals in the water system threatens both terrestrial and aquatic life across the globe. Water pollution by toxic pollutants continues to pose serious health and environmental threat to the ecosystem. Although adsorption using Cellulose-Based Nano Composites (CBNC) has proven to be an ideal technique for water and wastewater treatment from aqueous solutions, this naturally abundant cellulose suffer from a lack of mechanical stability, high removal efficiency, and recovery for practical applications. Herein, we review the low-cost synthesis of nano composite by cellulose-based materials incorporated with polymer, metal oxides, clay, and carbon-based materials mainly focusing on strategies to improve the adsorption capacity, mechanical and thermal stability, and separation of the hydrogel in removing toxic pollutants from aqueous solution was critically overviewed. Cellulose-based hybrid/hydrogel nano composites are reported as classical materials that have flourished with significant consideration, especially concerning water treatment. In an adsorption technology, hydrogel nano composites act as supper absorbents, prominent to enhance their removal efficiency towards contaminants. This review mainly highlights cost-effective and stable cellulose-based hybrid nano composites synthesis methods for efficient adsorbents. An in-depth seminar paper discusses the basic characteristic of nano composite hydrogels like stability, porosity, selectivity, and their applications.
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